Interchangeable parts - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Interchangeable parts

Whirlpool Part Number 675793A: PUMP&MOTOR

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  • The concept of interchangeable parts was used by Christopher Polhem in the manufacture of clock gears in Sweden at the beginning of the 1700s. The gears were made by machines with precision measurement to insure interchangeability; however, this work was probably not known in America. In his book, The Wealth of Nations, published in 1776, Adam Smith had discussed the idea of dividing labor—giving a single task to each worker to perform. By the 1790s, Samuel Bethan and Marc Brunel were using division of labor and machinery in mass-producing wooden pulley blocks for the English Navy. Almost every feature of the American system of manufacturing began in Europe earlier, but industrial progress was hindered by maintaining time-honored methods rather than experimentation.

    Interchangeable parts are parts () that are, for practical purposes, identical. They are made to that ensure that they are so nearly identical that they will fit into any assembly of the same type. One such part can freely replace another, without any custom fitting (such as ). This interchangeability allows easy assembly of new devices, and easier repair of existing devices, while minimizing both the time and skill required of the person doing the assembly or repair.

  • In 1798 Eli Whitney built a firearms factory near New Haven. The muskets his workmen made by methods comparable to those of modern mass industrial production were the first to have standardized, interchangeable parts.

    The idea of interchangeable parts and the separate assembly line was not new, though it was little used. The idea was first developed in during the period and later the over 2200 years ago – bronze crossbow triggers and locking mechanisms were mass-produced and made to be interchangeable. during the late Middle Ages had ships that were produced using pre-manufactured parts, , and . The apparently produced nearly one ship every day, in what was effectively the world’s first .

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  • Adj.1.interchangeable - (mathematics, logic) such that the arguments or roles can be interchanged; "the arguments of the symmetric relation, `is a sister of,' are interchangeable"
    logic - the branch of philosophy that analyzes inference
    symmetric, symmetrical - having similarity in size, shape, and relative position of corresponding parts
    2.interchangeable - capable of replacing or changing places with something else; permitting mutual substitution without loss of function or suitability; "interchangeable electric outlets" "interchangeable parts"
    standardised, standardized, exchangeable, similar
    replaceable - capable of being replaced

    Interchangeability of parts was achieved by combining a number of innovations and improvements in machining operations and the invention of several , such as the , , , and . Additional innovations included jigs for guiding the machine tools, fixtures for holding the workpiece in the proper position, and blocks and gauges to check the accuracy of the finished parts. allowed individual machine tools to be powered by electric motors, eliminating drives from steam engines or water power and allowing higher speeds, making modern large scale manufacturing possible. Modern machine tools often have (NC) which evolved into CNC (computerized numeric control) when microprocessors became available.

Interchangeable Car Parts | Release Date, Price and Specs

Interchangeable parts helped to usher a new era in manufacturing. In order to produce the large quantity of guns he promised, Eli Whitney implemented a primitive version of the assembly line that allowed unskilled workers to “slice metal by a pattern” to make specific parts of the weapon. Whitney also erected worker residences to house the laborers in his factories, an act that would be duplicated again and again during the age of industrialization. Whitney’ practices would come to influence businessmen like Henry Ford at the turn of the 20th Century, and earn him the nickname, “Father of American Technology”.